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Common Fig is fruit-bearing tree. It is known for its sweet fruits. It is native to the Middle East. They belong to the family of Moraceae.
Anjeer or common fig is a member of the Moraceae family. The fruit of this tree has a unique structure. The edible structure of the fig is actually a stem tissue, unlike most other fruits. They need very little care but provide delicious fruits which can be eaten fresh, It can also preserve or used for cooking.
The fig is one of the earliest fruits in the world. It is considered a commercial crop in India and is mostly grown in parts of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
These plants do not need much care. It prefers areas with high summer temperature for growth.
These plants are mainly adapted to subtropical climatic conditions. Therefore they prefer exposure to the full sun. They have no problem with the hot overhead sun. The ideal temperature is 15 degrees- 25 degrees Celsius.
The anjeer plant is drought resistant. The plants should be watered once in 9-12 days during the summer. Moderate irrigation is ideal.
The fig plant has high drought resistance and salt tolerance. Therefore they can survive in poor soil conditions. Heavy, well-drained calcareous soil is suitable for growth. The pH of the soil should be about 7-8.
The best planting season for figs is from June to September.
The fig fruits have an unusual structure. Most fruits mature from the ovary tissue. However, the fleshy, edible part of the fig matures from the stem tissue.
The bark is smooth and grey coloured.
The tree grows to a height of 15-30 ft.
A farmyard manure can be used to accentuate the growth of the fig tree. The dosage should be increased every year.
The plant should be trained to one stem. After it grows to a height of 1 meter, it should be topped.
The major pests that invade these plants are leaf defoliators, stem borers, and fig flies. The fig flies and the stem borers can be prevented by application of Demicron and Phorate granules with kerosene respectively.
However, the main problem that this plant faces is rust. Spraying Biltox or dusting with sulphur or Dithane Z-78 and Dithane M-45 can prevent rusting.
The fruits are edible and can be eaten fresh, preserved or can be used in cooking.
Fig fruits have many medicinal properties. They are said to help with indigestion, hypertension, heart diseases and iron-deficiencies.